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1 Political centralization in pre-colonial Africa
https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/jrobinson/files/political_centralization_in_africa.pdf
Kung bushmen and the Hadza, two hunter–gatherer societies; a few classic unpolitically centralized societies in Africa, these.
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2 Module Ten, Activity Two - Exploring Africa
http://exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu/module-ten-activity-two-2/
Decentralized or stateless political societies in Africa were often made up of a group of neighboring towns or villages that had no political connection with a ...
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3 The Centralized African State and its Implications for ...
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/9780230377196_9
Abstract. Though the foregoing political economy analysis does allude to certain distinctive aspects of the African state, it does not however incorporate the ...
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4 Precolonial Political Centralization and Contemporary ...
https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/685410
One of these dimensions is political centralization, which ranges from 0 for acephalous or stateless societies such as the Kikuyu (Kenya) and Nuer (Sudan) ...
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5 HISTORY IN A NON-CENTRALIZED SOCIETY - JSTOR
https://www.jstor.org/stable/24520244
SOCIETY. THE ITESO DURING THE ASONYA. J. B. Webster (et al.) E.A.P.H. Nairobi, 1973 pp. xxiii+189, maps, tables, price Shs. 24/- (in East Africa).
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6 Decentralized and Centralized Societies
https://www.lsu.edu/faculty/fweil/CentralizedSocieties.htm
Centralized society is the structure of despotism. The absolutist monarchs A (e.g., Louis XIV in France ) centralized authority under the old regime by ...
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7 Working Paper No. 141 PRE-COLONIAL POLITICAL ...
https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/155853/afropaper141.pdf
The effects of pre-colonial history on contemporary African development have ... as elsewhere in Africa, we record several stateless societies at level.
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8 8.4: Centralized Societies- Chiefdoms and States
https://socialsci.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Anthropology/Introductory_Anthropology/Introduction_to_Anthropology_(OpenStax)/08%3A_Authority_Decisions_and_Power-_Political_Anthropology/8.04%3A_Centralized_Societies-_Chiefdoms_and_States
Central to the power of a chief is control over economic resources such as land, agricultural surplus, and trade. Chiefs often hold land in ...
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9 The Centralization of African Tribal Societies
https://authors.library.caltech.edu/82092/
Abstract ; The Centralization of African Societies · The following people, at one time or another, have commented upon this essay. While I have ...
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10 Precolonial political centralization and contemporary ...
http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/66497/1/__lse.ac.uk_storage_LIBRARY_Secondary_libfile_shared_repository_Content_Green%2C%20E_Precolonial%20Political%20Centralization%20and%20Contemporary_Green_Precolonial_Political_Centralization_and_Contemporary.pdf
and the Annual Meeting of the Royal Economic Society. ... most centralized precolonial African states saw their power trail off as one got.
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11 Decentralization in Africa, by Giorgio Brosio, October 2000
https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/seminar/2000/fiscal/brosio.pdf
This combination of administrative centralization with a non-democratic political framework brought in most cases an increasingly unaccountable and corrupt ...
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12 Political Centralization in Pre-Colonial Africa | Request PDF
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/256046148_Political_Centralization_in_Pre-Colonial_Africa
The political organization in centralized states in pre-colonial Africa had a power structure that was distributed vertically with the king on ...
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13 Pre-colonial Ethnic Institutions and Contemporary African ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4118452/
This group comprises the Zulu, the Ngwato, the Bemba, the Banyankole, and the Kede. The other group consists of those societies which lack centralized authority ...
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14 The Failure Of The Centralized State - Routledge
https://www.routledge.com/The-Failure-Of-The-Centralized-State-Institutions-And-Selfgovernance-In/Wunsch-Olowu-Harbeson-Ostrom/p/book/9780367307509
The Failure Of The Centralized State Institutions And Selfgovernance In Africa. By. James Wunsch. ,. Dele Olowu. ,. John W Harbeson. ,. Vincent Ostrom.
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15 Centralization, Decentralization and Conflict in the Middle ...
https://web.worldbank.org/archive/website01418/WEB/IMAGES/FINALWOR.PDF
share of central government and the lowest federalism index.10 They also show that the. Middle East and North Africa lags behind all other regions in the ...
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16 The Acephalous Society and the Indirect Rule System in Africa
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/07329113.1994.10756455
Students of African anthropology have identified two types of societies in indigenous Africa: those that have centralised forms of authority (states); and.
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17 Political Organisation and Social Structure - WheelerBlog
https://wheelerblog.london.edu/political-organisation-and-social-structure/
These institutions themselves displayed a large variation in the degree of centralisation, ranging from centralised kingdoms such as the Zulu ...
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18 Precolonial Centralization and Institutional Quality in Africa
https://didattica.unibocconi.it/mypage/dwload.php?nomefile=precolonial20130924111426.pdf
measure the degree of precolonial political centralization of African ethnic groups. ... general feature of traditionally centralized African societies.
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19 African History through the Lens of Eco - YouTube
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZFcVwpa1O2o
Wheeler Institute for Business and Development
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20 Primitive Political Systems - AnthroSource
https://anthrosource.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdfdirect/10.1525/aa.1959.61.2.02a00020
with centralized governmental and political organizations. The essays analyzed ... Paula Brown (1951) classified West African societies according to.
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21 Pre-Colonial Political Centralization and ... - IDEAS/RePEc
https://ideas.repec.org/p/cep/stieop/039.html
Downloadable! The importance of pre-colonial history on contemporary African development has become an important .eld of study within development economics ...
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22 List of kingdoms in pre-colonial Africa - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_kingdoms_in_pre-colonial_Africa
This is a list of kingdoms in pre-colonial Africa, which existed before the Scramble for ... distinguishing five types, by decreasing centralization of power:.
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23 Centralised and Decentralised Societies Compared - Medium
https://medium.com/postcards-from-2035/centralised-and-decentralised-societies-compared-1336162fbe67
De Tocqueville believed that centralised society is the structure of despotism. The absolutist monarchs A (e.g., Louis XIV in France) ...
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24 Book Review: The Postcolonial African State in Transition
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0002039721999392
Hence, the colonial and post- colonial centralisation was not alien to the African societies but rather served different means. Chapter 3 examines the time/ ...
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25 Pre-colonial political systems and colonialism - Oxford Academic
https://academic.oup.com/book/682/chapter/135364865
Pre-colonial Africa was characterized by a wide diversity of societies. Most pre-colonial societies in Africa were based on communal values, in the sense ...
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26 History of Centralization and Kingship in Sub-Saharan-Africa
https://digitalcommons.longwood.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1003&context=omni
reference point for centralized kingdom-statehood in Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Based on a Weberian analysis of functional societies, he posited that.
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27 Decentralisation in East Africa by UCLG CGLU - Issuu
https://issuu.com/uclgcglu/docs/decentralisation_and_local_democracy_east_africa_r
› uclgcglu › docs › decentralisation_a...
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28 Decentralised Service Delivery in East Africa | JICA
https://www.jica.go.jp/jica-ri/IFIC_and_JBICI-Studies/english/publications/reports/study/topical/africa/pdf/002.pdf
the fields of local administration and governance in Africa, or support ... 2-4 Decentralisation and the centralised structure of Kenya (Yuichi Sasaoka) .
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29 Central Africa - Early society and economy | Britannica
https://www.britannica.com/place/central-Africa/Early-society-and-economy
The third phase covered less than 10,000 years and brought the development of the societies that have become familiar to modern history. These societies arose ...
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30 Political organisation and state formation - The pre-colonial era
https://www.coursera.org/lecture/african-development--from-the-past-to-the-present/political-organisation-and-state-formation-liUd2
I spend limited time discussing Africa's long history before ... These societies were organized through a decentralized political system in ...
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31 Working Paper No. 141 PRE-COLONIAL POLITICAL ...
https://www.afrobarometer.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/02/afropaper141.pdf
suggest that pre-colonial political centralization has had a positive impact on contemporary levels of development within Africa at the country level.
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32 How colonial rule predisposed Africa to fragile authoritarianism
https://theconversation.com/how-colonial-rule-predisposed-africa-to-fragile-authoritarianism-126114
Prior to colonial rule, many – though not all – African societies lived in ... But, most were a long way from being centralised political ...
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33 Kinship Relations & Political Systems in Africa - Study.com
https://study.com/academy/lesson/kinship-relations-political-systems-in-africa.html
In many traditional African societies, kinship ties are similarly expansive and can include a large and diverse range of relationships.
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34 11 Nuer and Stateless Societies
http://smu-facweb.smu.ca/~wmills/course316/11Nuer.html
see Robert O. Collins, ed., Problems in African History, pp.167-209. - for a long time, many historians ignored stateless societies, preferring centralised ...
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35 AFRICAN DECENTRALISATION POLICIES AND PRACTICES ...
https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/18515687.pdf
centralised. In terms of broad state-society relations, African countries are decentralised. Most economic activities remain uncaptured by the state, ...
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36 11: Women and Authority in West African History
https://wasscehistorytextbook.com/11-women-and-authority-in-west-african-history/
Kings and queens (queen mothers) rule over centralized societies; and male and female elders rule over small scale societies. In West Africa men and women take ...
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37 HIS/P6: The Pre-Colonial Societies in Africa
https://www.educare.bz/unit/his-p6-the-pre-colonial-societies-in-africa/
Centralized states also had organized economic activities particularly trade and agriculture. Most of these economic activities were centrally controlled, i.e. ...
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38 Traditional leadership and corruption in pre-colonial Africa
http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000300009
According to them, the structure of African societies then helped in no mean way in curbing corruption considerably. They aver that 'the centralized ...
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39 Acephalous - Oxford Reference
https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110810104313741
A term used to describe the political system of societies without centralized state authority—such as, for example, traditional African lineage political ...
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40 THE STATE IN AFRICA
http://repositorio.ipea.gov.br/bitstream/11058/6341/1/PWR_v2_n3_State.pdf
a State and centralized systems3 postulates that the former are based upon groups ... African societies that have a separate political organization (the ...
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41 WIDER Working Paper 2021/188-Pre-colonial centralization ...
https://www.cmi.no/publications/file/8083-pre-colonial-centralization-and-tax-compliance-norms-in-contemporary-uganda.pdf
Africa to collect more tax revenues from both existing and new tax bases. ... centralized societies helped promote the accountability of local leaders by ...
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42 CASE STUDIES OF STATELESS/ SEGMENTARY OR NON ...
http://www.kawa.ac.ug/Africanhistory/case_studies_of_stateless_segmentary_or_non_kingdoms_in_africa.html
These societies are also referred to as Egalitarian or stateless societies. Examples of such societies in pre-colonial Africa include the Kikuyu, the Iteso, ...
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43 Social structure and conflict in sub-Saharan Africa | CEPR
https://cepr.org/voxeu/columns/social-structure-and-conflict-sub-saharan-africa
However, there are many other differences across African societies beyond their levels of state centralisation. For example, groups also differ ...
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44 The Politics of Decentralization in Africa: A Comparative ...
https://gsdrc.org/document-library/the-politics-of-decentralization-in-africa-a-comparative-analysis/
Indeed, the experiences suggest that a country is likely to make a rapid and sustained transition from a centralised to a decentralised state structure only if ...
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45 Pre-Colonial Nigeria and the European's Fallacy
http://rhpsnet.com/journals/rhps/Vol_2_No_2_June_2014/2.pdf
the societies which had no writing had no history.2 Consequently, ... Africa and Nigeria specifically, the political systems of the people were tagged.
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46 Production systems in pre-colonial Africa
https://www.aehnetwork.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Green.Production-Systems-in-Pre-Colonial-Africa.pdf
These diseases also affected agricultural societies by limiting crop production, because where disease was endemic the farmers could not keep cattle and thus ...
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47 Precolonial Political Systems - African Studies
https://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199846733/obo-9780199846733-0100.xml
Nevertheless, during most of Africa's precolonial history, a significant portion of African people lived in small-scale, egalitarian societies ...
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48 Decentralisation and citizen participation in West Africa
https://journals.openedition.org/apad/4056
Decentralisation was seen as a means by which the over-centralisation of political decisions at the top of the state could be altered. Civil society actors ...
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49 African Civilizations: From The Pre-Colonial to the Modern Day
http://www.eolss.net/sample-chapters/c04/e6-97-09.pdf
Unlike most Euro-Asian civilizations, African societies favored oral tradition ... structure can be divided into centralized and decentralized societies.
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50 Colonialism and Economic Development in Africa
https://www.nber.org/system/files/working_papers/w18566/w18566.pdf
Most parts of Africa did not have the types of centralized political ... In the former, societies like the Masai or Kikuyu would have likely.
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51 PRE COLONIAL AFRICAN SOCIETIES - St. Matthew's Schools
https://www.stmatthews.ac.tz/history4-1/PRE-COLONIAL-AFRICAN-SOCIETIES
The pre-colonial African societies had centralized and decentralized political set up whichwere able to expand and build strong empires likeBuganda, ...
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52 FEATURE REVIEW The contemporary African state
https://library.fes.de/libalt/journals/swetsfulltext/11220693.pdf
ropean, not African, and set up against African societies rather than having evolved ... a low regime of economic accumulation and political centralisation, ...
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53 Equatorial Guinea | South African History Online
https://www.sahistory.org.za/place/equatorial-guinea
The prominent Bantu societies were the Fang people who developed a centralised society with a strong army able to prevent colonisation by ...
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54 The Colonial and Pre-Colonial Eras in Nigeria | AHA
https://www.historians.org/teaching-and-learning/teaching-resources-for-historians/teaching-and-learning-in-the-digital-age/through-the-lens-of-history-biafra-nigeria-the-west-and-the-world/the-colonial-and-pre-colonial-eras-in-nigeria
There were some specific outcomes and impacts for Africans as a result of WWI. ... presence of Europeans in their society and with a famous riot/rebellion.
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55 Decentralisation in Africa: Scope, Motivations and Impact on ...
https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/57a08ae740f0b652dd00098c/FAC_Working_Paper_No20.pdf
African societies which reduces the polarisation of power ... may also be used to justify the centralisation of certain services.
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56 Warrior and the state in pre-colonial Africa - Zambia Daily Mail
http://www.daily-mail.co.zm/warrior-and-the-state-in-pre-colonial-africa/
On the other hand, 'state' societies had a centralised authority (personified in the head chief) and incorporated several other societies ...
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57 General History of Africa - UNESCO
https://en.unesco.org/general-history-africa
Highly centralized political and administrative structures develop and societies with distinct social classes and, often, a strongly feudal character.
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58 CHIEFDOMS AND KINGDOMS IN AFRICA:
https://www.ascleiden.nl/pdf/chiefdomsandkingdoms.pdf
society, Egharebva (1960) on Benin, Smith (1960) on government in Zazzau, Skinner ... problem of understanding of original African centralised polities.
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59 Centralized And Decentralized Societies During The Slave...
https://www.bartleby.com/essay/Centralized-And-Decentralized-Societies-During-The-Slave-P3JNJ85ZLJ5W
The Atlantic Slave Trade had a profound effect on the way states were constructed and transformed in West Africa. Some societies became very powerful, ...
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60 Elias-Africa-And-the-Development-of-IL-Edited1.pdf
https://law.unimelb.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/2038600/Elias-Africa-And-the-Development-of-IL-Edited1.pdf
society, there is no centralized authority, little or no administrative ... Whereas the chiefly or monarchical societies in Africa are run under the.
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61 Political impact of decentralization in Africa
http://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/ir/isaru/assets/file/raris/raris-17-01_Takuo_IWATA.pdf
countries and has had significant effects on African societies, ... centralized cooperation, and political disputes in urbanizing African local govern-.
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62 Democracy and Governance in Africa | Democratization in Africa
https://www.nap.edu/read/2041/chapter/5
Political autonomy and policy participation for local communities and ethnic groups in society are significant factors of government legitimacy. Participants ...
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63 Political Centralization in Africa - Economist's View - TypePad
https://economistsview.typepad.com/economistsview/2012/06/political-centralization-in-africa.html
In part because of its geography, the African continent has been slow to develop trade routes with exception of its coastal areas. African kingdoms that did ...
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64 CHAPTER 7 THE NATIVE SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT - Brill
https://brill.com/downloadpdf/book/9789047440031/Bej.9781571053374.i-586_009.xml
for centralized authority while another section chose to live without it. ... in many West African societies, including the Asante and Fanti of Ghana as ...
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65 A History of Decentralization
http://www.ciesin.org/decentralization/English/General/history_fao.html
Centralization is in response to the need for national unity, ... local governments and civil society more competent in the management of their own affairs.
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66 'Indigenous African Institutions' by George Attiyey
https://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/28459/02chapter2.pdf?sequence=3
2.3.2 Chiefless or non-centralised societies. 32. 2.4 Colonialism in Africa. 35. 2.4.1 Gradual colonialism. 35. 2.4.2 Governance during the ...
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67 Centralized Institutions and Cascades
https://digitalcommons.chapman.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1113&context=economics_articles
information is available - pushes societies towards certain equilibria. ... are less likely to be addressed in centralized societies, since central.
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68 Africa before Transatlantic Enslavement
http://archive.understandingslavery.com/index.php-option=com_content&view=article&id=306_africa-before-transatlantic-enslavement&catid=125_themes&Itemid=151.html
In many part of the continent no major centralised states existed and many people lived in societies where there were no great divisions of wealth and power ...
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69 South Africa: When Strong Institutions and Massive ...
https://carnegieendowment.org/2021/03/18/south-africa-when-strong-institutions-and-massive-inequalities-collide-pub-84063
A rising tide of disillusion across a broad swathe of society further undermined the political settlement. The losers in elite conflicts ...
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70 Genetic legacy of state centralization in the Kuba ... - PNAS
https://www.pnas.org/doi/10.1073/pnas.1811211115
State centralization occurs when previously separate communities are united, forming a single political system often associated with economy, trade, ...
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71 RELIGION AND POLITICS IN PRE-COLONIAL NIGERIA
https://www.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/religion-politics-pre-colonial-nigeria/docview/1614299342/se-2
Many societies held the belief that the spirits of the departed had great power of ... to introduce Christianity in West Africa, particularly in Nigeria.
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72 Traditional Institutions in Africa, Past and Present - OSF
https://files.osf.io/v1/resources/kw32s/providers/osfstorage/6026349773c9fe01d107d6b7?action=download&direct&version=3
where societies lacked centralized institutions the creation of new institutions was imperative for the roll-out of colonial rule (e.g. Fortes and ...
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73 Segmentary versus Centralized States Among the Ancient Maya
https://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=1130&context=anthro_fac_articles
tion of ancient Maya society have vacillated between ... Alur of Africa, clearly neither a stateless segmentary lin- eage society ...
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74 Impacts of Socio-political Organisational Structures ...
https://revues.imist.ma/index.php/AJLP-GS/article/download/26197/14845
African societies could be broadly categorised into two classes, namely centralised and non- centralised states. Elias (1956, 11) described these states in ...
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75 Leadership and Statebuilding in Post-Colonial Africa
https://leadershipandsocieties.com/index.php/lds/article/download/97/81
However, dominant narratives of statebuilding as a post conflict endeavour have seen states like Cameroon which lack a functional state-society relationship ...
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76 The Warrior and the State in Precolonial Africa
https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/67219/10.1177_002190967701200103.pdf
from those of small scale, precolonial African societies which evolved a chiefly ... centralised (segmentary), military organisation ought therefore to ...
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77 What are the characteristics of non-centralized states ... - Quora
https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-characteristics-of-non-centralized-states-in-pre-colonial-Nigeria
What characteristics qualify Nigeria as the giant of Africa? ... support a fully centralized government believe they have the answers to society's problems ...
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78 THE NON- CENTRALIZED STATES OF NIGERIA BEFORE 1800
http://www.tansicollege.edu.ng/content/non-centralized-states-nigeria-1800-week-one
The people who lived in these societies, unlike their counterparts in Oyo and Benin which are centralized for example, were distinguished by ...
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79 Philosophy and Restructuring of Nigeria - SSRN Papers
https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/Delivery.cfm/SSRN_ID3587405_code4140809.pdf?abstractid=3587405&mirid=1
resolution, pre-colonial African societies could be classified into two major groups, namely, “those that have 'centralised' / chiefly political systems…and ...
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80 Approaches of Post-colonial and Indigenous Social Work
https://www.eh-berlin.de/fileadmin/Redaktion/2_PDF/INTERNATIONALES/Approaches_of_Post-colonial_and_Indigenous_Social_Work.pdf
Two broad types of African pre-colonial political formations refer to. 'Stateless' or acephalous societies and states which centralised authority.
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81 Revisiting Civil Society in Africa Pieter Labuschagne ...
https://afsaap.org.au/assets/Labuschagne.pdf
This begs the question: why is civil society in Africa different from its counterparts in ... that in many of the traditional centralised societies, the.
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82 Political Anthropology: A Cross-Cultural Comparison
https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-culturalanthropology/chapter/political_anthropology/
Egalitarian societies also lack a government or centralized leadership. ... Many pastoralists in East Africa, for example, have age grades and age sets.
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83 Quantitative Evidence from Native Authority Institutions
https://www.bde.es/f/webbde/INF/MenuHorizontal/SobreElBanco/Conferencias/2021/211008_14.30-16.00_2_BOLT.pdf
However, because most precolonial African societies were not despotic, ... population density and political centralization in Africa.
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84 East African Community
https://www.eac.int/
The East African Community (EAC) is a regional intergovernmental organisation of 6 Partner States: the Republics of Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, ...
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85 Two Power and Space in Precolonial Africa
https://www.universitypressscholarship.com/view/10.23943/princeton/9780691164137.001.0001/upso-9780691164137-chapter-2
In particular, precolonial African societies unbundled ownership and control of ... “the growth of a unified and highly centralised state with an absolute ...
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86 Pre-Colonial Kenya | AFR 110: Intro to Contemporary Africa
https://sites.psu.edu/afr110/2014/09/24/pre-colonial-kenya-2/
Rich in diversity, Kenya houses up to 42 ethnic groups which all differ in history, culture, politics, economy, and society.
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87 Land Access, Agricultural Land Use Changes and Narratives ...
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/a034/da89e8bc2e21b7117c9be4e02ad5767cf327.pdf
Ghana is one of the West African parties to the ... centralised state societies and non-centralised societies [35]. The centralised stated ...
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88 History of Zimbabwe - Colonialism
http://www.zim.gov.zw/index.php/en/my-government/government-ministries/about-zimbabwe/460-history-of-zimbabwe?showall=1
Pre-colonial Zimbabwe was a multi-ethnic society inhabited by the ... By about the 14th century, the process of political centralisation had begun among the ...
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89 ALI A. MAZRUI The Africans: A Triple Heritage (1986)
https://www.njstatelib.org/research_library/new_jersey_resources/highlights/african_american_history_curriculum/unit_1_african_beginnings/triple_heritage/
This is the theme of gloriana in African history. But alongside these African societies of centralised complexity and gloriana have lived people ...
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90 Ethnic Groups - East Africa Living Encyclopedia
https://www.africa.upenn.edu/NEH/uethnic.htm
The first category includes the large and historically highly centralized kingdom ... the Bagisu, and many smaller societies in Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya.
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91 Africa Before The Slave Trade And Colonization
https://www.afrikaiswoke.com/africa-before-colonization/
Africa during antiquity before the Slave Trade and Colonization was characterised by Iron Age Kingdoms forming centralised States as well as ...
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92 The politics of poverty: Elites, citizens, and states - OECD
https://www.oecd.org/derec/unitedkingdom/48688822.pdf
Governance describes the way countries and societies manage their affairs ... State Legitimacy and Development in Africa; the DFID Governance Portfolio ...
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93 Pre-colonial history of Ghana - GhanaWeb
https://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/history/pre-colonial.php
4000 B.C.), but these societies, based on fishing in the extensive lagoons ... the first black African nation to gain its independence from colonial rule ...
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94 The State of Decentralization in West Africa: Mixed Progess
https://mcld.org/2017/08/05/the-state-of-decentralization-in-west-africa-mixed-progess/
Experience in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Senegal and Sierra Leone. Since the 1990s, various African countries have adopted measures of ...
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95 Between strong states, decentralization and development in ...
https://www.pambazuka.org/governance/between-strong-states-decentralization-and-development-africa
... to state centralization is needed, especially in the African context, ... through which economic processes are instituted in societies.
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96 Colonialists didn't fail to root out Africa's tribal politics. They ...
https://africanarguments.org/2019/08/colonialism-tribal-ethnic-politics-africa/
According to this narrative, African societies are yet to be fully ... the victorious ethnic coalition established a centralised state, ...
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